PART II., Hosea 4-14. A series of addresses which give a summary of Hosea's prophetic teaching. The period presupposed seems to be the time of anarchy which followed the death of Jeroboam II (c. 743 B.C.). But there is no reason to suppose that the sections are arranged in chronological order. In Hosea 4-8 Israel's guilt is emphasized, in Hosea 9:1 to Hosea 11:11 the punishment, and in Hosea 11:12 both lines of thought are continued, the whole being rounded off with a brighter picture (Hosea 14). As, however, the oracles are essentially independent it is best to treat them separately. The text is in places very corrupt.
Priests and Rulers are Bringing the Nation to Ruin. Judgment is declared against (Hosea 5:1 mg.)  the priests and ruling class because they have ensnared the people (by encouraging the mixed cultus) at the sanctuaries Mizpah (in Gilead probably), Tabor and Shittim (Hosea 5:2 corrected text) are mentioned as the scenes of such worship. A spirit of whoredom in the literal sense of the word (cf. Hosea 4:12) animates them, and the brazen pride with which they pursue their evil course condemns them. When Israel and Judah fall as fall they must they will seek in vain to propitiate Yahweh with sacrifices from their flocks and herds; He has withdrawn Himself from a generation who are not His, but bastards (Hosea 5:1-7). Suddenly the alarum of war is heard (Hosea 5:8), Ephraim's doom and desolation are certain (Hosea 5:9).
 If RV text be right, the priests are referred to as those who administer justice (so Welch).
Hosea 5:5. Either (a) Israel's vainglorious pride testifies openly against him and condemns him, or (b) Israel's pride may be Yahweh; the former is preferable. Their overwhelming pride in the cultus is meant (cf. Hosea 7:10). Marti omits the last clause.
Hosea 5:7. strange children: a generation that has no real knowledge of Yahweh. The last clause may be explained: Any month may bring news of war; but the expression is strange. Marti emends, Now shall the destroyer devour them, and their fields shall be devastated.
Here the immoral cultus is no longer the subject, but the inner moral corruption of the state and its leaders. The parallelism of Judah and Ephraim in this section is remarkable, but seems to be original.  Judah's political leaders are specially singled out as examples of fraudulent dealing, and shall incur the Divine wrath. N. Israel (Ephraim) also suffers oppression, the whole social fabric is rotten, because the people have wilfully followed after vanity (mg.). Internal decay has set in in both kingdoms (after the death of Uzziah and Jeroboam II) (Hosea 5:10-12). Too late both peoples recognise the desperate case of the body politic, and resort to Assyria for aid (king Jareb, i.e. king Pick-quarrel,  is a nickname for the king of Assyria), but without avail; Yahweh Himself is their adversary (Hosea 5:13 f.).
Hosea 5:13. If Jareb is a name for the king of Assyria, the reference may be to Menahem's tribute to Assyria in 738. This will also be the case if great king or exalted king (cf. LXX) be read. Wellhausen reads, and Judah sent to king Jareb. The reference would then be to Ahaz in 734.
 Marti changes Judah throughout to Israel: cf. also Welch, p. 268, n. 18.
 So G. A. Smith.
Hosea 5:15 to Hosea 6:3. Israel's Confession and Penitence. Yahweh, speaking in His own person, declares that He will return to His place (i.e. to heaven; cf. Micah 1:3), there to await Israel's penitence (Hosea 5:15). When trouble comes they will eagerly seek Him. Then follows (Hosea 6:1-3) a light-hearted confession of sin by the people, coupled with expressions of assurance that their God will forgive and help them. Many scholars regard this section as an addition by a later hand, intended to mitigate the unrelieved gloom of what precedes. But nothing in the style or language suggests that the piece is not by Hosea. Batten thinks it represents the confession and penitence of the purified people who will emerge from the judgment. Others regard the confession as a light-hearted one, put into the mouth of the people, which (in Hosea 6:4HYPERLINK "64.fi" ff.) Yahweh rejects. Welch suggests that the prophet is quoting (in Hosea 6:1-3) a temple-song (used at one of the great festivals), which he uses as a sort of text for comments that follow. Hosea 6:4 is then the immediate continuation of Hosea 6:3.
Hosea 5:15. LXX inserts saying at the end (cf. mg.).
Hosea 6:2. After two days. the third day, i.e. after an undefined but short interval. Marti thinks that the return from the Exile is referred to.
Hosea 6:3. his going forth, etc.: read (rearrangement of Heb. consonants), as soon as we seek him we shall find him.